All people have heard of the famous award, which is given to scientists for contributions to science and innovation. It is a kind of "measure" of knowledge and talent, so inventors, writers and public figures around the world are eager to get it. Still, the prestigious Nobel prize opens many roads, provides great opportunities for financing and investments in research activities. But the scientists themselves do not descend from covers of fashion magazines and well improve your financial situation.
The initiator of introducing the awards was the famous Swedish engineer and chemist Alfred Nobel. The rate of the phenomena of the world of inventions scientist ahead of his heritage consists of more than 350 scientific developments. Part of the resulting state, Nobel bequeathed created in 1895, which was supposed to reward outstanding minds and stimulate further productive activity. The first ceremony was held after the death of the scientist. Now it takes place every year in December in one of the Stockholm city hall.
The prestige of this award makes scientists to work up a sweat. But what are the circumstances compel people to consciously abandon the highest award in your field?
Consider 10 high-profile cases of refusal of the Nobel prize laureates.
10. George Bernard Shaw
The famous writer, whose works are permeated with humanism, satire and idealism, the Board determined the award in 1925. The author abandoned it, believing that financial assistance at this point is no longer relevant, and he's all "thorns" on the path to success has been able to overcome on their own. Journalists quickly spread the news about the eccentric behaviour of the poet, with the result that he began to receive many letters of different content. Some Americans wondered what time the Show is so rich, we could share with the common people. Similar behavior plagued the writer, and he appealed to the people with irony, lamenting that the Nobel prize is a mistake for the world of science.
9. Alexander Solzhenitsyn
In the 70s the famous writer of the Soviet Union and dissident also refused an honorary award. Her Alexander was awarded for high morality and the preservation of traditions of Russian identity. The author didn't even attend the ceremony for fear that such award would interfere with his return from Stockholm to Russia. And so it happened, actually – after the recognition of the writer's world Board began an active persecution. Solzhenitsyn's manuscripts were seized and destroyed, and the famous book "the GULAG Archipelago", released in France in 1973, was the occasion for the announcement of the writer a traitor to the Motherland. Then followed the expulsion from the Soviet Union. And yet memorial award "waited" its owner Solzhenitsyn got it a year later.
8. Phan Dinh Khai
The political face under the pseudonym Le Duc tho headed the North Vietnamese delegation, which attended the peace talks in France. For his diplomatic activity, the Fan in 1973 was going to give the famous prize. She was also awarded "colleague" Khai – state Secretary of States Henry Kissinger. The result of the productive dialogue of these 2 diplomacy was the signing of a peace agreement in Paris about the cease-fire. Fan Ding, however, declined the prize due to the fact that the signing of the agreement is not complete by the end of the war, so the celebration of figures prematurely.
7. Adolf Butenandt
The famous German chemist dedicated his life to the study of sex hormones in the body. The scientist has learned to excretionary urine of human dehydroepiandrosterone and Androsterone – derivative, which allowed to consider in detail the structure of testosterone and to perform its artificial synthesis. In 1934, the author was able to obtain the pure form of the female hormone progesterone. For his services in 1939 he was awarded the Nobel prize. But the award Adolf Butenandt was unable to pick up due to the political situation.
6. Leo Tolstoy
Academy of Sciences in Russia nominated writer and philosopher for the award in 1906. Tolstoy wrote a good comrade Jarnefelt writer with a request that he wasn't awarded this distinction. At the age of 78 years, the author saw no reason to allocate the money, as he was from a noble family with a prosperous estate. He also probably did not want to "become famous" as one of the senior nominees for the award. Each writer has fulfilled the request and it was addressed to the poet of Italy, Carducci.
5. Jean-Paul Sartre
A famous French playwright and philosopher the prize was awarded in 1964. Jean-Paul predicted a bright future in literature, since his texts are imbued with the spirit of freedom and had a significant impact on the spirit of the time. The writer chose to give the award again for reasons of philosophy. Money and fame according to his reasoning can become obstacles to independence and productive work. Playwright officially made the disclaimer in Paris, and a few months later, shook the world community and that was going to retire from literary pursuits, calling him a "surrogate" effective transformation of the world.
4. James Watson
Biologist colleagues received the award in the 60-ies for the amazing discovery of DNA and the explanation of its molecular structure. It changed the course of biological science, allowing us to decipher the genome of individuals. In recent times scientist studying cancer processes and is looking for effective processes of dealing with them. For new searches, the author needed money, and the income from fees for selling books dried up. To resume effective activity by the biologist decided on a radical step – put on the sale of the Nobel medal, despite the importance of this commemorative award. At auction it was bought for almost 5 million American dollars, and then immediately returned to the owner. Here is a wide step to maintain scientific progress is not unfounded politicians.
3. Richard Kun
The first state structure which forbade the scientific workers of the country to accept the Nobel prize, was acclaimed the Third Reich. Decisions of the prize Committee of the Nazi representatives was called politics. In the result of hype your well-deserved award could not pick up the famous chemist Richard Kuhn is a native of Germany. The scientist was awarded it in 1938 for the effective study of vitamins and carotenoids. Also Kuhn determined the structure and was able to artificially synthesize several hundred natural ingredients, among them plant pigments. After the Second world biochemist was able to get a well-deserved medal, however, "burned" during this time a sum of money no one returned.
2. Boris Pasternak
The famous writer received in 1958 the award for his novel "Doctor Zhivago". Pasternak was very touched and pleasantly surprised by this news, but the happiness did not last long – it began active persecution of the staff of the CPSU Central Committee. In the homeland of Boris considered an enemy of the state, which was manifested in his alleged anti-Soviet texts. The attacks were supported by news releases, theaters removed the translated plays, and the writers ' Union expelled from their lists. But that's not all – Boris Leonidovich claim about deprivation of the Soviet citizenship. The latest drop brought the writer, with all your soul belonging to the homeland, out of balance, against which he hastened to give the award. The diploma and medal was given to the family of Pasternak posthumously.
1. Gerhard Domagk
Also became the victim of a political dictator Hitler during the war. In 1939, the famous German bacteriologist was awarded the Nobel prize for the discovery of sulfanilamide prontosil antibiotic designed to fight against streptococcal pathogens. After the war, Domagk had the right to pick up a medal, but the financial support of the award has expired.
So politicians and other persecutors prevented worthy scientists in obtaining rewards. The present researcher medals and financial incentives are not interested, because the unique discoveries are the business of his life.